23 January 2014
J P RICHARD
Wars come and go but my soldiers remain eternal (Tupac Shakur)
LAE - Just recently, during my 2013 new year’s holidays in Markham, I stumbled upon a plant that told me a story of war, love, family history and also broadened my biochemistry understanding of a plant that could transform the face of medicine.
After we bought buai and daka at Ansa market in Mutzing station in the Markham district, my grandfather and I trailed back on the dirt track along the eroding banks of Mangyang creek to our peaceful village of Sampubangin.
Along the track the buai I held in my palm slipped and fell into a bed of thorny bushes of herb. Carefully I tried to pick out my buai and pricked my hand in the process.
“Ouch!” I cried out.
Grandfather laughed and said “Rumpung (grandchild), I’ll tell you a story about this thorny herb.”
I’m like oh boy, here we go, another boring tumbuna story. As a biology student, I already knew what the plant is. It is commonly called touch-me-not, sensitive plant or nilnil grass in tok pidgin. Its scientific name is Mimosa pudica, in Latin pudica means shy, bashful or timid.
The herb is a flowering perennial herb from the same family as the peas and beans, the Fabaceae or Leguminosa family. It’s a native to the tropical Americas but how it ended up in Papua New Guinea had a tale that is embedded in the stories of World War 2 and my grandfather was around 18 years old when WW2 invaded the graceful Markham valley.
The year was 1943 when the Japanese military set up camp in various areas around Morobe province. The Japanese were out-numbered and losing ground but regardless, they had created a simple war strategy that enabled them to maintain their territory in the northern Australia and the New Guinea region.
The Japanese brought in the Mimosa pudica and scattered the seeds along the bush tracks. The seeds grew and spread over the area. Then they would check on the plants occasionally to see if they were disturbed with the leaves being retracted. There they would know by the shrunken leaves together with the boot prints that the Allies were close by and they would ambush them and take them out. The Mimosa pudica was so helpful and had seen them successes throughout the region.
Grandfather remembered his Australian soldier colleagues complaining and cussing at the thorny shrub bristle not knowing that the plants were not native but rather a Japanese tactic to use these shy soldiers to give them signs that the enemies were around.
Those Australian soldiers were reserve battalions, many of them very young and untrained. When they would complain grandfather would brush the plant aside, all the while wondering where those plants came from because all his life in Markham he had never seen anything like that.
The plant was also brought into New Guinea for one other purpose, medicine. The chemicals contained in the herb were extracted and is used to fight snake venom as well as when chewed and swallowed it subdues stomach ache, two of the deadly threats besides being gunned by the Allies.
The Japanese were strategically smart and being cautious with the thought that well, if you weren’t being shot at by the Allies or the natives, you could well die from snake bites and stomach illness.
Later I did a little research and find out that the Mimosa pudica contains the biochemical toxic alkaloid mimosine, which has been found to also have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. The extracts of Mimosa pudica immobilize the filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis (a human parasitic roundworm that inhibits the small intestine) in less than one hour.
Plant juice extracts from the roots of the plant have shown significant neutralizing effects in the lethality of the venom of the monocled cobra. It appears to inhibit the myotoxicity and enzyme activity of cobra venom. Of course the Japanese were not too sure if cobras were found in New Guinea back then, well just to be on safe side.
By 1944, Japanese troops had seized the old Kaiapit station up at Sauruan village, Markham and had taken the villages as captives. My grandmother hailed from Sauruan and was around 5 years old when the Japanese soldiers invaded their village and captured them. Being very chubby and light-skinned, the Japanese kept her in a cage together with other ‘edible-looking’ children so they could feed them and eat them because the food supplies for the Japanese were intercepted by the Allies.
Grandfather, as a young man, helped fought with the Allies when they conquered Sauruan in time to rescue the captives. Grandfather’s heart was broken when he saw the little children in the cage not knowing that one of those edible children would one day be his dear old wife.
Grandmother’s bigger brother who was tied down and beaten was finally rescued and became close friends with my grandfather. So there, the family connection was made. When the Japanese lost at the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the valley grew peaceful and our grandfathers lived on after the wars building houses and gardens. My grandparents were married and moved on to Lae when grandfather got a job working for the Niugini Medical distributors.
Today the plant is widespread in Morobe province and other parts of New Guinea region and is considered as weed to agricultural food crops both in gardens and plantations. But the humble story of these shy soldiers of World War II lives on leaving a legacy that shaped the classic Morobean heritage.
Wars come and go but these shy soldiers remain eternal.
I love war stories set in New Guinea, especially twisted war techniques that are both horrifying and funny (:
Snails and toads - yummy! No wonder the Japanese could live to like 300 years old, hehe.
Posted by: J P Richard | 25 January 2014 at 11:04 AM
Anne, yes I've heard of snails as well as toads. And Phil, yes in Bougainville there are stories of locals being eaten by the Japs. They starved terribly when the Allied forces blocked all sea shores. I even have a story on that !
Posted by: Marlene Dee Potoura | 23 January 2014 at 07:50 PM
Marlene, I don’t know about toads, but my mother recalled thousands of giant snails – many as large as a man’s hand – all along the road from Rabaul to Vunapope in 1949. The Japanese had introduced the snails to feed their troops. By 1949, in the absence of predators, the snails had multiplied to pest proportions.
Posted by: Anne Griffin | 23 January 2014 at 07:10 PM
Did the Japanese actually keep children locked up and then eat them when they were fat?
We know that they ate bits of their fallen comrades when forced to by starvation but fattening children seems a bit far-fetched.
The children might have been kept locked up for something equally sinister. Or were they just having fun with the gullible villagers?
Might be a bit of Hansel and Gretel creeping in here.
Posted by: Phil Fitzpatrick | 23 January 2014 at 03:47 PM
When I used to help weed the cattle pastures at Manggai High School I used to encourage the weeders to dig the sensitive plant out by its roots and lay it over the logs and stumps to be killed by the hot sun. If you did it carefully, down at the root base, you could get away without being scratched!
Posted by: Mrs Barbara Short | 23 January 2014 at 02:08 PM
Many thanks as on our Plantation at Aitape, West Sepik we had various cover crops ( Centrosema & Pueraria ) to keep the grass & weeds at bay & give nitrogen to the soil.Then Mimosa Pudica started taking over in the 1950s & was a very big problem for the Plantation workers.Once scratched an infection usually followed.
I was told by some Didiman that he believed when it was originally introduced the particular variety had no thorns & a wonderful cover crop.But subsequently the agressive thorny variety took over.
On checking Wikipedia I can not find any thornless variety so your Grandfather's story is appreciated.
You mentioned that the Alkaloid Mimosine was in Mimosa & it is also in the wonderful Cocoa shade tree Leucaena Glauca.The leaves of which are a richer source of Nitrogen than Lucerne/Alfalfa.We found that OK for cattle but when we fed big quantities to our pigs they lost all their hair.This was caused by the Mimosine.Will do the same to Sheep & Horses.
Posted by: Rob Parer | 23 January 2014 at 11:42 AM
Ouch , so many of these plants in Bougainville too. Thank you, now I know were they came from. Richard, I've also heard stories from my bubus that toads were brought to our country during World war 2, by the Japanese. I always wish somebody would confirm this.
Posted by: Marlene Dee Potoura | 23 January 2014 at 10:27 AM
Wow! A very interesting story, Richard. We have plenty of this plant up here in Simbu and I thought it was native but now I know where and why it came to PNG. Thank you.
Posted by: Francis S Nii | 23 January 2014 at 08:02 AM