In this month’s Una Voce, the journal of the PNG Association of Australia, there is an article, ‘The PNG Crest and Flag’ by Geoff Littler. There is much more to this story, which we can reveal here…..
BECAUSE there was no course or school for graphic or commercial art in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea (as it was known then), I decided to introduce one; which I did with the help of the Adult Education Society.
There was a fee for persons outside our Department of Information and Extension Services but I offered my Papua New Guinean staff free access and ran periodic lessons for them during working hours.
My national staff had joined the art section with no prior art training of any real benefit—even in their attendance at primary or high school levels.
Sadly, with two of the employees, Tabua Bama and Esau Reuben, the lessons during working hours fell on deaf ears. They were proud and took umbrage at any suggestion they lacked expertise or knowledge. They never asked questions for fear that they would reveal their ignorance.
The others were different— they soaked up every scrap of information and were frequent questioners.
Independence was approaching and I was asked to contact the Office of the House of Assembly to discuss designs for both the national crest and flag. The assignment would entail enlisting the aid of the PNG artists in my art section and together we were to come up with a series of designs to submit to the Committee for Constitutional Development.
The Committee at the time was travelling throughout the country to discuss the future constitution of an independent nation. The flag and crest were just two of the many items to be addressed during their tour.
There was a tight deadline to produce a folio of ideas to submit for approval. When the Committee arrived in Lae we were invited to attend one of their sessions and present our suggestions.
We took a flight across the Owen Stanley Range from Port Moresby and booked into the main hotel in Lae. With me was Esau Reuben, my second in charge. Esau distanced himself from the New Guineans in the studio. Like most coastal Papuans, particularly Moresbyites, they considered it degrading to be spoken to in Pidgin English.
The job was made more difficult because not one of the PNG staff could be considered a designer. Nevertheless they deserved to be given the chance to come up with a design. Several designs for both the flag and the crest emerged out of this, and they were carefully mounted and framed to maximise their chances of acceptance.
Because of my departmental director Lisle Newby's orders not to proffer any of my own designs, I refrained from producing a piece of finished artwork for the flag or the crest.
Instead, I selected a series of images that were the obvious choices, such as a Bird of Paradise, the Southern Cross, the Union Jack and so on. In addition, there were lots of possible variations of stripe and colour.
These I prepared in the form of felt cut-outs to be adhered to felt backgrounds, and they were instantly interchangeable. This was also an effective way of having the Committee participate and almost guaranteeing a favourable outcome. It was a simple matter then to develop the best design from the material at hand.
Pidgin English came to the rescue at the Committee meeting. We were to strut-our-stuff at 10am the morning after our arrival. Esau Reuben and I sat on hard benches in a sauna-bath atmosphere outside the conference room. When the call came and we entered the air-conditioned room we were snap-frozen.
The members of the Committee were all Papuans and New Guineans except for John Middleton OBE.
The chairman was Minister for Information Paulus Arek. Paulus knew me for we had earlier established that, during the war, I had stayed in his village with my company overnight. The following day we had moved on to Pongani prior to our final destination – a confrontation with the Japanese at Buna.
At that time, Paulus was a boy, who had warned us not to sleep under the coconut palms for the falling nuts could be deadly.
Quite a few of the Committee members were New Guineans and spoke only their local language and Pidgin. Paulus spoke to the Committee in English and then in Pidgin, so the New Guinean members could understand.
He announced that Esau and I had been sent from Port Moresby on the authority of the House of Assembly and would present proposed designs for the flag and the crest for their consideration. He then turned to us.
"I feel that we should ask Esau Reuben, who is a Papuan, to speak first,” Paulus said in English.
“Mr Reuben, so that we can all understand, could you please address the meeting in Pidgin?"
Esau, who had been buoyant and smiling until then, froze as if a sudden shock wave had struck him. There was an embarrassing silence.
"I'm sorry sir," he said. "I can't speak Pidgin English."
Paulus paused and said: "Well in that case we will have to ask Mr Holman to address the Committee. “Can you speak Pidgin, Mr Holman?" (He knew I did.)
"Certainly, Mr Chairman."
"Then let's get on with it, please proceed.”
Without further ado I began to explain in Pidgin the complicated story behind the submissions and the designs. In spite of my efforts to wax eloquent, the Committee members sat stone-faced. They were obviously not impressed.
Finally the Esau and I were sent out of the conference room while the Committee deliberated about the crest. The suspense was awful and Esau was devastated. He was a very proud Papuan and this blow to his ego was unbearable. There rift between us had widened to a canyon.
When we were called back Paulus Arek expressed regret that the Committee had rejected all submissions.
"Mr Holman, this committee will sit again in Lae for the last time tomorrow morning. Perhaps you can find time before then to come up with something else."
There were suggestions of what might be suitable motifs, and it appeared the preferred image was a Bird of Paradise. With that the meeting ended. We were politely ushered away and the door closed behind us.
I had brought brushes and art equipment with me for the two of us.
“That's the end of any thoughts of relaxation this evening,” I said to Esau. "I don't think they would take too kindly to blank sheets of paper in the morning. We’d better come up with something good!"
I was quietly pleased for it meant that I could now submit a design, which previously director Newby had disallowed. It was dawn when I finally laid down my paintbrush. It was still too early for breakfast so I decided to walk around Lae before turning up to the dining room.
Soon after I did, Esau joined me. He looked exhausted and his eyes were bloodshot and puffy.
"You look like it's been a rough night, Esau." He nodded and picked up the menu. I tried to start a conversation by describing what I’d seen on my walk but there was flinty silence.
After breakfast I mentioned to Esau that that we should meet outside the conference room at nine o'clock. He nodded and we parted. I spent the last half hour cleaning up my design and headed for the conference room. Esau was sitting on the bench outside the door.
"Hi!" I said with forced brightness. "All ready?" He nodded.
I soon realised he was empty-handed. "Have you left your work behind?” I asked.
“I couldn't think of anything,” Esau said angrily.
"Not to worry, I've got something here to show them, so at least they can't complain. Besides, I can ask for more time if it’s not to their liking."
When the door opened, and we were called in, the members were signing papers. Not one of them looked up. I fumbled with the catch on my briefcase and took out my work. The members began to look up and Paulus Arek spoke.
"You have some new work to show us, Mr Holman?"
"Gentlemen, that's it! That's the crest our country needs!" At that he marched up to the illustration and saluted.
The design for the national crest had instantly achieved the unanimous approval of the Committee.
I then unrolled the felt designing kit I had put together. After securing the basic felt background rectangle, I applied each alternative design symbol – bird of paradise, southern cross, union jack and the rest.
I was guided by their comments and suggestions and there was lively participation as the flag reached its rough form with their approval. We were ushered out with thanks.
This was where the design for the PNG national flag emerged.
But it was a politically sensitive issue and the design found its way to Moresby and into a competition – where it evolved into its present form.
As late as 2005 Esau Reuben was claiming his participation in the design of both the crest and the flag. He had nothing to do with either. He was a spectator.
But Lisle Newby, the Director of Information, was zealous in his dedication to exalt the feats of what were then termed "local officers". Only their feats were to be considered newsworthy in press releases issued by his department. He lauded even insignificant feats in the patronising praise usually reserved for toddlers taking first teetering steps.
I went off to Sydney to meet my new in-laws and, upon my return to Port Moresby, asked whether the finished artwork of the national crest had been presented to Parliament for final approval. It had not. It had gone missing.
Leo Byrne, the Administrative Officer disclosed that he had seen it “shoved behind the Director’s filing cabinet”. When I asked for it, Lisle Newby was taken aback and angry, but handed over the artwork which was soon after accepted by the Constitutional Development Committee and published in the Government Gazette as the national crest for what would soon be an independent nation.
It was a great moment for me and I contacted Jim Leigh, head of broadcast services, to tell him he might have a news story.
"Well that all depends, Hal," he said, avoiding my gaze. "Was a local officer involved in the design?"
He also pointed out that it would be improper for an expatriate to be seen as instrumental in the country's flag design therefore the rough design we’d agreed in Lae was to be turned into a colouring competition.
Black outline drawings of my “test flag” (as it was called) with the Southern Cross and stylised Bird of Paradise were to printed and circulated widely throughout PNG in a colouring-in competition.
This happened and, eventually, a Yule Island schoolgirl named Susan Kareke was announced as the winner of the “PNG flag design competition”. To rub salt into the wounds, I was ordered by Newby to photograph the girl raising the flag, as her design, for the first time on our department’s flagpole. For this she was awarded the OBE.
Susan Kareke continues to be given credit for designing the flag. In 1998 she threatened to pull down the flag on Independence Day unless she was granted a house, a car and a pension for life.
Then, on 22 September 1998, John Middleton OBE wrote a stunning letter to the Post-Courier newspaper.
“I was a member of the Constitutional Committee of the second House of Assembly that chose the flag and the following comments may be of interest. On our first tour of the country the committee was asked to gather flag designs from the people.
“However, in spite of extensive advertising, we found little enthusiasm for a new flag and only a few designs were submitted, none of which were regarded as suitable for a national emblem.
“The Australian Government then suggested to the committee that we have a flag designed and take it on our next tour to get the people’s comment. Actually the question changed from “do you want a flag?” to “do you want this flag”.
“This did cause considerable debate and certainly far more interest. When a sub- committee (of which I was not a member) went to Yule Island, they brought back an adaption of this flag which everyone thought very suitable.
“The original “test” flag was actually designed by a Government artist Mr Hal Holman in conjunction with the Committee. It was three vertical bars of green with a gold bird of paradise, gold and blue, with the Southern Cross.
“A school girl, Susan, had drawn a diagonal line across the test flag and reduced the colours to two, red and black. She explained she did not like the colours and layout of the original flag as they were not traditional.
“Much more traditional and festive was red and black and the diagonal was also more traditional, she thought. Anyway, the committee agreed and the flag was recommended and eventually accepted as our national emblem.”
And that is the true story of how the PNG national flag was created.
Hal Holman was later awarded an Order of Australia and PNG’s Order of Logohu for his contribution to design, sculpture and art in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Now 93, and in failing health, he lives on Queensland’s Gold Coast. ‘The Phoenix Also Rises’ is an unpublished memoir