Rev James Chalmers (Tamate) - his name & the names of many other heroes of PNG will be remembered forever
WABAG - Today, 8 April, is the anniversary of the untimely death of Rev James Chalmers – ‘Tamate’ – who was killed and cannibalised along with Rev Oliver Tomkins and local missionaries on Goaribari Island in Western Province 119 years ago.
When I think about their horrible deaths, the names of four friends come to mind who were all posted to serve in the Western Province at some stage of their careers in the 20th century.
Continue reading "That their names may live on" »
Cr Paul Kiap Kurai with his father's last wife, Kipaukwan, and some of his children at Kaiap village
WABAG - One of the greatest feats Kurai Tapus accomplished occurred in World War II when he accompanied Daniel Leahy and a group of men to rescue eight missionaries including five Catholic nuns hiding from the Japanese in the jungles of Wewak.
What is intriguing about this story is whether Kurai recognised Leahy as the other white man who had come to Tole on that dark day of the mass killing some nine years previously.
Continue reading "The turbulent story of Enga" »
Early highlands explorers Jim Taylor and Michael Leahy
PORT MORESBY - The colonial Administration utterly failed to understand why native people in the vicinity of Wabag patrol post vehemently opposed the government establishing contact with them.
Colonial kiaps described the native people as the “most difficult to be found anywhere” for continuing to oppose them after a base was established in Wabag during the Hagen-Sepik patrol of 1938.
Continue reading "The story of how ‘gavman’ came to Wabag" »
WABAG - Alois Alapyala Yolape often thanks Fr George Schubbe publicly, even though the priest is dead, for playing an important role in getting him elected for the Monokam council ward in the Ambum Valley 57 years ago.
Recently, he again acknowledged Fr Schubbe at a new church opening at Leptenges near Sirunki, where his late mother was born.
Continue reading "The old priest & the young councillor" »
NORTHUMBRIA - This photograph is the most puzzling in my Papua New Guinean collection.
I tramped through the bush for almost six years and it is the only example I bumped into that had any resemblance to the totem pole so often presented as typical of Native American culture in the nineteenth century or the mumbo-jumbo, voodoo style, pagan doll depictions so readily associated with early British exploration of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Did kiaps and anthropologists who broke PNG bush much earlier than the late 1960s come across anything that was similar?
It was housed in a traditional sentry box-like structure standing at the end of a line of village houses in the Pilitu section of the Goilala Sub-District that I came upon in January 1974.
Continue reading "The mysterious Goilala ‘totem pole’" »
ADELAIDE- When I was a small child I was a precocious reader. By the age of 12 I had ploughed through Edward Gibbon’s ‘History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire’. This made me unusual amongst my peers.
Mind you, I also devoured, just as avidly, ‘Treasure Island’, ‘The Coral Island’, the entire series of Biggles books and pretty well anything written by Gerald Durrell.
Continue reading "Whose history do you believe?" »
Bill Brown MBE with Fred Kaad OBE. A recent photo of two of colonial Papua New Guinea's distinguished district commissioners
BILL BROWN MBE
THE CHRONICLE CONTINUES - It was not a massive upheaval, but the last quarter of 1967 and the first quarter of 1968 saw two of the kiaps enmeshed in Conzinc Rio Tinto’s (CRA) operation leave Bougainville and four newcomers arrive.
District Commissioner John Wakeford moved to another hotspot, the recently created West Sepik District. His headquarters were situated at Vanimo, just 45 kilometres from the border with West Irian. (1)
Continue reading "A Kiap’s Chronicle: 27 – The UN Visiting Mission" »
Mark Lynch (standing left rear) with the first PNG Cabinet, 1975
BILL BROWN MBE
SYDNEY - I had a sandwich and a glass or two of red with Fred Kaad and two of his daughters on 14 January.
Actually, it was a rosé, not a red. And Fred, at 99, the oldest surviving former kiap, was a tad non-verbal.
The meet-up went for five hours and inspired me to revisit some of the more recent booboos in the stories about kiaps.
Continue reading "Kiaps – PNG didn’t push us out" »
Auditorium and mess at Mougulu High School (Sally Lloyd)
PETER DWYER & MONICA MINNEGAL
With a rare and wonderful book. Download here: 'Taim Bipo - People of the Nomad District. When the White Men Came'
MELBOURNE - In late January 2020, Bedamuni (Biami) people hosted an inaugural Strickland, Sisa, Bosavi cultural festival.
There were guests and performers from all neighbouring language groups.
Continue reading "When the white men came" »
Sir Albert Kipalan (with spade) on the spot where Fr Jerry Bus settled at Kopen
PORT MORESBY – In 1948, there was a sudden rush by Christian denominations to establish mission stations after the colonial Administration lifted restrictions of movement to unpacified areas of what is now Enga Province.
Prior to that there had already been rivalry between Lutheran and Catholic missionaries to win new converts around Mt Hagen.
Continue reading "Fr Jerry Bus & the Enga" »
Lutheran Church pastor Ango Panao with his son and grandson
WABAG – “Call me Joseph. I am not Kurai anymore,” Joseph Kurai Tapus said to his friends, associates - and anybody he met - soon after Fr Peter Granegger SVD baptised him at Sari Catholic Mission on 8 April, 1977.
Not many Christian converts are known to have done that, but Kurai made public announcements of his conversion and subsequent name change.
Continue reading "The story of Joseph, once Kurai" »
John Gordon-Kirkby's old patrol box
PORT MORESBY - Many kiaps [patrol officers] and other expatriates left Papua New Guinea in the years immediately before and after independence in September 1975.
Imagine the memories they took with them and may still have in their minds today?
One of the last kiaps to leave the highlands Enga District [now a province] was John Gordon-Kirkby who liked to eat sweet potatoes roasted in an open fire.
Continue reading "Where did the kiaps go" »
A faction of warlords and fighter arrives for the peace ceremony
KELA KAPKORA SIL BOLKIN
PORT MORESBY – People using the Okuk highway that ploughs through the New Guinea highlands know only too well the frequent tribal skirmishes that have caused fear to the travelling public this past 20 years.
The fighting has erupted violently and unpredictably at Ganigle in the Kerowagi district of the Simbu Province.
Continue reading "Warlords enter 2020 striving for peace" »
"Their endurance was awesome. Since the moment they could walk they had been trained to overcome every discomfort" (Graham Forster)
NORTHUMBRIA, UK - Patrol boxes are embedded within the memory of every kiap and, indeed, anyone who went “on patrol” in pre-independence Papua New Guinea.
In difficult country they could be awkward, even brutish, burdens but nevertheless were toted, uphill and down dale for mile after endless mile by village carriers without whose help patrolling, a keystone kiap activity, could not have taken place.
Continue reading "The iconic patrol box" »
YUNGABURRA, Far North Queensland - Over the years I have heard and read many different versions of ‘how [the storyteller] came to live and work in Papua New Guinea’.
I have told my own story many times with a bottle of SP Brown in hand, but today is the day I write it down.
Continue reading "Was it all a mistake?" »
The irregulars of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army were so effective, Julius Chan's government tried to bring in overseas mercenary soldiers. Uproar ensued throughout PNG, including in the defence force
SYDNEY – Fairfax Media has reported that important information about Australia’s relationship with Papua New Guinea will remain a secret, even though it is 20 years old and due to be released.
The National Archives of Australia usually releases secret cabinet documents two decades after they were created in Australia.
The Archives director David Fricker says this is an "essential function we perform for transparency and integrity of Australian government in this democracy of ours".
Continue reading "The 20 year old secrets PNG cannot know" »
Wigged villager at Wabag patrol post when Kurai Tapus was a bosboi (Fryer Library, University of Queensland)
WABAG - Her voice was like the sound of angels singing joyous melodies in the starlit Bethlehem night in celebration of the birth of Jesus in a manger on that first Christmas Day.
In January 1946, in a very different place, a similar earthly celebration took place in a lonely pulim anda (birth house) among the casuarina trees at Kaiap village, where a young mother sang a victory song when her son was born.
Continue reading "Pingeta’s daughter & bigman Kurai Tapus" »
The mining agreement between the copper company and the colonial Administration passed into law without the field officers in Bougainville being forewarned, let alone fully briefed
BILL BROWN MBE
THE CHRONICLE CONTINUES - As far as my kiap colleague John Dagge and I were concerned, everything was going well around Barapina and Panguna.
We were not gaining acceptance, but the people were at least listening to our explanations about CRA’s prospecting activity.
Then, on 29 August 1967, the House of Assembly – Papua New Guinea’s parliament - passed into law a mining agreement bill between the company and the Administration.
Continue reading "A Kiap’s Chronicle: 26 – The plot against Bougainville" »
"A truth commission might provide an easing valve for past hurts, short of that Bougainville remains a powder keg, awaiting to be lit"
| Eurasia Review
ALBANY, USA - It would be an understatement to claim that Bougainville, that blighted piece of autonomous territory in Papua New Guinea, had been through a lot.
Companies have preyed upon its environment with extractive hunger. Wars and civil strife have beset its infrastructure and economy.
Continue reading "Bougainville: Powder keg awaiting a match?" »
ADELAIDE - In his reflection, ‘The Ways of Our Ancestors’, Robert Forster raises an important issue for Papua New Guinea..
Tribal fighting was the bane and curse of pre-colonial PNG. It was an affliction that the kiaps strove to suppress as they undertook their pacification and then nation-building tasks.
Continue reading "Our own worst enemies" »
NORTHUMBRIA, UK - We all have tumbunas and this horse rider could have been one of mine.
He is a Northumbrian reiver [border raider] who would have secured his livelihood, and protection, within a tight family group which shared the same surname and didn’t care about much else.
Continue reading "The ways of our ancestors" »
Phil Fitzpatrick, relaxing in the haus kiap on a patrol north of Nomad in the 1960s - "I found that three months leave was about all I could stand of civilisation"
TUMBY BAY - Kiaps were required to work for 21 months in Papua New Guinea before they were granted three months leave.
When their leave was due they were provided with a return airline ticket to Australia.
After 21 months in the field most kiaps looked forward to their leave. It was a chance to catch up with their families in Australia, see what had been going on in the outside world and enjoy a few luxuries not available in PNG.
Continue reading "Fascinating, sweet, incurable PNG" »
Wabag-Kompiam divide - the central ridge along which many patrols passed
WABAG - John Gordon-Kirkby was probably the last colonial kiap (patrol officer) to regularly visit the central ridge in Wabag made famous by the explorer Jim Taylor who described the landscape as a ‘garden land’ while on the Hagen Sepik patrol of 1938-39.
The route along the ridge starts on the banks of the Lai River at Wakumare near the present day Sir Tei Abal Secondary School.
Continue reading "The last kiap on the ridge" »
Cadet patrol officers watch police on parade, Sogeri, 1950
TUMBY BAY - The comment has occasionally been made that kiaps were just public servants, no more and no less. That’s technically true but there was a whole lot more to it.
In essence they were multi-skilled administrators doing a whole range of things quite divorced from the usual public service image of pen pushers and desk jockeys.
Continue reading "The making of a kiap" »
MELBOURNE - I will take Robert Forster’s narrative a bit further to provide more clarification of the colonial Administration’s patrol reports for those wishing more information on those times.
There is much valuable historical data in the reports, particularly for Papua New Guineans who are seeking tribal or family history.
Continue reading "Those old patrol reports II" »
NORTHUMBRIA, UK - The University of California’s photocopied archive of old and ancient patrol reports is fascinating - a treasure trove for historians and archivists keen to blow away the metaphorical dust that will be shrouding a multitude of historical nuggets.
Those who click the link must however arm themselves with patience.
Continue reading "Those old patrol reports" »
Tsike – the Tsengelap clan leader burdened by the problems of looming Independence
NORTHUMBRIA, UK – I look at the two images accompanying this essay and ponder upon how rare it is that photographs in a random collection show the same man in such contrasting postures.
Luluai Tsike of the Tsengelap clan, which has its seat at Talu near Banz on the north side of the Wahgi Valley, is deeply troubled in the image at right and smiling and joyful in the one below.
Continue reading "The fears of Luluai Tsike" »
Paul Oates at Pindiu in 1970 with Papua New Guinea Administration colleaguesa
Small Steps along the Way, by Paul Oates. Download it free here
WARWICK QLD - With Small Steps along the Way Paul Oates enters the pantheon of kiaps who have recorded their experiences in Papua New Guinea during the years of its prelude to independence in 1975.
Collectively they fill the void eschewed by mainstream historians, and for good reason.
Continue reading "The kiaps: After dedication, melancholy" »
PETER DWYER & MONICA MINNEGAL
MELBOURNE - We have recently published three short articles that may be of interest to PNG Attitude readers.
They draw on the archive of patrol reports that, with permission from the Papua New Guinea National Archives, has been provided online here by the University of California at San Diego.
Continue reading "On reading patrol reports" »
John Pundari (right) with Michael Malabag in Pundari's house at Meraimanda
WABAG - Imagine how brave it was for local women to marry complete strangers – whether other Papua New Guineans or expatriates: men who dressed differently, spoke strange languages, ate weird foods and bore different skin colours.
This was the time when the PNG highlands were opening to the outside world of explorers, gold prospectors and kiaps (patrol officers), strange men who seemed to have appeared in their midst at the blink of an eye.
Continue reading "The eighth wife of a ‘bosboi’" »
Thadius Kaka Menge today - almost 100, saw the onset of colonialism and mind as sharp as a tack
WABAG - Thadius Kaka Menge is one of the few surviving local leaders in Wabag who assisted the colonial administration pacify warring tribesmen and bring change and development to their communities.
The kiaps, or patrol officers, effectively used local leaders to partner with the police to establish Wabag town and built roads and bridges.
Continue reading "When the white man came to Wabag" »
The Coastwatchers Memorial in Madang - should there be something similar for the kiaps?
TUMBY BAY - There have been rumblings among the ever diminishing ex-kiap community for several years now about the desirability of erecting a monument to the work they did in colonial Papua New Guinea, and especially to commemorate those who lost their lives in the service.
The proposals range from a physical structure at a selected location to something like a scholarship for Papua New Guinean students named to mark the kiaps’ contribution to the development of their nation.
Continue reading "On memorials & monuments for kiaps" »
Gough Whitlam and Don Dunstan in Canberra in 1973 during Whitlam’s prime ministership (National Archives of Australia)
TUMBY BAY - The argument goes that it was Australian opposition leader and later prime minister, Gough Whitlam, who led the charge for early self-government and independence in Papua New Guinea.
This is a naïve and simplistic view cherished by many observers in both Australia and Papua New Guinea. But the real story was decidedly more complex.
Continue reading "Don Dunstan’s role in PNG independence" »
Author Bob Lawrence was first introduced to Pacific Islands Monthly by fellow ABC journalist Sean Dorney in 1974
A Short History of the Pacific Islands Monthly Magazine, by Bob Lawrence, Chatswood Press, November 2019. 72pp,illus. ISNI:0000000067657158. $A25 plus $A5.50 post and handling charge. Available from Bob Lawrence here
SYDNEY - The Pacific Islands Monthly (PIM), my short history of which is being launched today in Sydney, was conceived during the trauma of World War I.
Some years later it had an unlikely birth in 1930, during the world’s worst depression, and then survived having half its subscribers driven from their home addresses in early 1941 as the Japanese advanced southwards in World War II.
Continue reading "PIM and me: a love story" »
GOF | The Bucket Blog
FAR NORTH QUEENSLAND - The patrol officers, or kiaps (derived from the German ‘kapitan‘), who were responsible for the grassroots administration of Australia’s colonial presence in Papua New Guinea during the 20th century were outstanding young men.
They were trained at the Australian School of Pacific Administration (ASOPA) in Sydney in preparation for careers which required physical stamina and total commitment in a country which would initially provide them with unparalleled culture shock.
Continue reading "Seven huts for seven nights" »
Cessna 206 taking off from Siwea in the Morobe hinterland, early 1970s (The Bucket Blog)
PORT MORESBY - I know at least one kiap who actually traversed the rugged terrain from his remote outpost.
My mother's offer letter to come to Lae and attend Busu girls’ high school from our hinterland Mindik village in Finschhafen was delivered by one Paul Oates to my grandfather.
Continue reading "The practical wisdom of the kiap" »
"There was a sense of relief when the patrol left my village as they caused tension and anxiety with their demanding behaviour"
SEATTLE, USA – Many years ago when I was a small boy in the highlands of Enga, a kiap and his patrol erected tents and camped at my village for several days.
A policeman bought kaukau and greens from our women with payment made in salt and tobacco.
Fear was driven into us that the kiap and his team might hurt or take us away, so I never got close to the camp site and for hours watched all their movements from a safe distance.
Continue reading "My first kiap encounter" »
Constant patrolling made pre-independence administration very effective. The district commissioners kept up pressure to make sure boots were always on the ground
TUMBY BAY - Before independence in Papua New Guinea what are now the provinces were called districts. Each district was headed by a district commissioner, who pretty much had free reign to run it as he saw fit.
Each district was divided into sub-districts within which were several patrol posts. The sub-districts corresponded to what are now called provincial districts and electorates.
The sub-districts were under the charge of assistant district commissioners who also had a lot of freedom to decide how they ran things as long as they kept the district commissioner informed and on side.
Continue reading "“No need for a patrol report, old chum"" »
It is believed that the Lapita people, who inhabited PNG for perhaps 2,000 years before moving on, were great navigators.
| An entry in the Crocodile Prize
PORT MORESBY - Papua New Guinea is blessed with a diverse culture and heritage. But where do these amazing cultural values and behaviours come from? How did they originate and evolve? Not much is known about the prehistory of PNG.
Written records go back to the 1500s when Portuguese sailors named the island Ilhas dos Papuas, the land of the fuzzy-haired men.
Continue reading "50,000 years of culture & heritage" »
Kiap Harry West on patrol, 1950s
In the early afternoon
We crested the ridge
The sergeant and I
Behind us the mountains
Citadels of the Min
Before us the great plateau
Rolling green and unknown
Hiding the elusive Kanai
Our ragged patrol
Weary and footsore
Followed the river
And there in the longhouse
Under a blue black sky
Shivering and frightened
The past met the future.
Continue reading "Contact patrol, Western District, 1970" »
Ancient Lapita pot
| An entry in the Crocodile Prize
PORT MORESBY - Clay pots in many parts of Papua New Guinea are household items and people say they enjoy food cooked in clay pots.
In the Markham valley, the signature clay pot, or ‘gurr’ as we call it, is on the fire every day of the week.
Continue reading "3,000 years of pottery show who we are" »
Robin Murphy - the Queensland construction entrepreneur began designing bridges in PNG in 1963
KEITH JACKSON with thanks to Rob Parer
Link here to a video of Robin’s early days in PNG from 1963-69. https://vimeo.com/177157110
This second video, titled ‘Overcoming the odds’, tells the story of the building of four Oro bridges in 2014-16. https://vimeo.com/226839061?ref=em-share
BRISBANE – The founder of Brisbane-based Canstruct Pty Ltd, Robin Murphy OAM, started his career in Papua New Guinea in late 1963 a week before me.
He had recently graduated as an engineer and soon found himself designing and, not long after, building bridges.
Continue reading "Robin Murphy OAM, the bridge builder" »
Jack Golson (second left) and Philip Hughes (second right) with workmen from Kuk village, 1974
| An entry in the Crocodile Prize
PORT MORESBY - The history of agriculture in Papua New Guinea goes back about 10,000 years, with the country recognised as one of the global birthplaces of plant domestication.
The Kuk swamp in the Waghi valley of the Western Highlands has provided archaeological evidence of the agricultural practises of the people of that time, who probably first occupied the region 50,000 years ago.
Continue reading "The unearthing of 10,000 years of agriculture" »
A shortcut through the sago swamps in MV Aveta, about 1970
ADELAIDE - Daniel Kumbon’s enjoyable article on his visit to Kerema brought memories flooding back to me.
In August 1969, a little over 50 years ago, as a brand new Assistant Patrol Officer, I was posted to the Gulf District (now Province).
In those days, being posted to the Gulf was regarded by many young kiaps as a fate worse than death.
Continue reading "Kerema: Dispela lapun i lukim tu" »
The original Kaiapit bell, 1943. Read the story behind the image at end of article (Australian War Memorial)
| An entry in the Crocodile Prize
PORT MORESBY - To tell a classic story that happened nearly 100 years ago is almost impossible to weave together today.
As close as I could get was to discover a source from 20 years after the event. My grand-mama, born around 1939 and who lived through World War II, related to us kids this account that was passed down from her father.
Continue reading "The story of Belo - Maus Bilong God" »
Neragaima Catholic Mission
KELA KAPKORA SIL BOLKIN
PORT MORESBY - Galkope men’s houses (hausman), in what is now the Simbu Province, schooled young boys of the Dom, Yuri, Bari and Erula Nauro tribes, which had colonised their territories by migrating from different lands.
The Dom evolved out of Dlekopl while the Yuri walked east through the Wahgi valley. Erula 1-4 evolved out of Monguma, while the Bari arrived at Dukul Mormapir from the Gena-Nogar.
These four tribes, now referred to as Galkope, converged and settled on either sides of the Kola-Kawa River alongside an existing tribe, the Teklau-Baimane.
The Teklau-Baimane settled at Olkaipel, Mekul, Kaluvalu and the vicinity - but fled west after killing Yuri Alaibia before the coming of the Makruai, and settled at Kerual Apane in Jiwaka Province. To this day the older people still speak the Nauro-Bari language.
Against this backdrop, the Roman Catholic Church arrived unexpectedly and settled at Mingende just after the Makruai. The church extended its influence to new lands and built a new mission station at Yopar. The Gakwane and the Erula Nauro people were excited about the opportunities the church brought to their midst.
Continue reading "Galkope (except 9 lepers) celebrate 70 years in the Catholic faith" »
New South Wales mounted police engage Indigenous Australians during the Waterloo Creek Massacre of 1838
ADELAIDE - In late 1982, I completed the last semester of my studies for a university degree, in which I had majored in history and politics.
When the official transcript of my academic record turned up, I was surprised to discover that I had, entirely by accident, also majored in a subject called Australian Studies.
So, in theory at least, I was a certified ‘expert’ in Australian history, not to mention having completed my bachelor's degree with an unusual triple major.
Reading Phil Fitzpatrick's article, ‘Colonial wars much bloodier in Australia than Papua’, it occurred to me that at no time during my studies did the topic of Australia's frontier wars ever come up, except obliquely when race relations during the colonial era were discussed.
Continue reading "How PNG avoided Australia’s devastating ‘frontier wars’" »
An informal village court (Graham Forster)
NORTHUMBRIA – Back in colonial times, informal bush courts were taken seriously by Papua New Guinea’s village people and also by patrolling kiaps.
In this photograph from 1974, the postures adopted by the village group were typical of people taking part in the informal community courts of the time.
Regular government patrols moved through rural locations holding these courts, conducting censuses, checking on sanitation and other issues, advising on road construction and undertaking many other tasks.
The gathering shown here took place immediately in front of the haus kiap and the kiap (back to camera), who was accepted as a neutral arbiter, is sitting on its step.
In front of him, one of the patrol’s policemen is summing up the circumstances surrounding the complaint.
Continue reading "Informal rural courts were an important part of the kiap’s role" »
NORTHUMBRIA - It is late 1974, just months before independence, and a white kiap conducting a routine patrol is walking into one of Papua New Guinea’s many mountain villages.
At the same time some government advisors in the capital, Port Moresby, are saying kiaps offend people in these communities and as a result of this, and other perceived misdemeanors, should be encouraged to pack their bags and return to their foreign homes.
However in this photograph, there is little to suggest the kiap – who is about to shake hands with village leaders - is not welcome.
Continue reading "A sight seen no more – a kiap walks into a mountain village" »
Friends carry a wounded student to seek medical help. It was a miracle that nobody died after police recklessly fired shots into university students protesting peacefully on campus
SCOTT WAIDE | My Land, My Country | Edited
LAE - This week marks three years since students at the University of Papua New Guinea were shot at a public gathering.
In the days leading up to the shooting they were belittled, scorned and told their opinions on good governance and corruption did not matter.
The students were campaigning for greater transparency in government, a stop to overseas borrowing and the resignation of the prime minister.
Ideas whose time has come three years later.
The students coined the hashtag #UPNG4PNG to show their patriotism and loyalty to their country and extended their campaign on social media.
They were uncertain about the outcome and many were unsure if what they were doing would be approved by their parents, families and country.
The girls dressed in black.
Continue reading "Three years on: Let’s not forget the brave students of 2016" »